The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.The RBI plays an important part in the Development Strategy of the Government of India. It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union.

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About Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.The Central Office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Calcutta but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The Central Office is where the Governor sits and where policies are formulated.Though originally privately owned, since nationalisation in 1949, the Reserve Bank is fully owned by the Government of India.

Preamble

The Preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the Reserve Bank as:

"to regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and generally to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage; to have a modern monetary policy framework to meet the challenge of an increasingly complex economy, to maintain price stability while keeping in mind the objective of growth."


Main Functions

Some of the main functions includes:

Monetary Authority:

  • Formulates, implements and monitors the monetary policy.
  • Objective: maintaining price stability while keeping in mind the objective of growth.

Regulator and supervisor of the financial system:

  • Prescribes broad parameters of banking operations within which the country's banking and financial system functions.
  • Objective: maintain public confidence in the system, protect depositors' interest and provide cost-effective banking services to the public.

Manager of Foreign Exchange

  • Manages the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.
  • Objective: to facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India.

Structure

RBI runs a monetary museum in Mumbai.The central board of directors is the main committee of the central bank. The Government of India appoints the directors for a 4-year term. The Board consists of a governor, and not more than 4 deputy governors; 4 directors to represent the regional boards;[35] 2 — usually the Economic Affairs Secretary and the Financial Services Secretary — from the Ministry of Finance and 10 other directors from various fields. RBI wants to create a post of Chief Operating Officer (COO) and re-allocate work between the five of them (4 deputy governor and COO)

The bank is headed by the governor and the post is currently held by economist Urjit Patel. There are 4 deputy governors BP Kanungo,[38], N S Vishwanathan and Viral Acharya, Mahesh Kumar Jain.

Two of the four deputy governors are traditionally from RBI ranks and are selected from the Bank's Executive Directors. One is nominated from among the Chairpersons of public sector banks and the other is an economist. An Indian Administrative Service officer can also be appointed as deputy governor of RBI and later as the governor of RBI as with the case of Y. Venugopal Reddy and Duvvuri Subbarao. Other persons forming part of the central board of directors of the RBI are Dr. Nachiket Mor, Y C Deveshwar, Prof Damodar Acharya, Ajay Tyagi and Anjuly Duggal.

Branches

The RBI has four zonal offices at Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai.It has 27 regional offices and 4 sub-offices. Regional offices are located in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jammu, Kanpur, Kochi, Kolkata, Dewas, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna, Dehradun and Thiruvananthapuram and sub-offices are located in Agartala, Aizawal, Dehradun, Gangtok, Imphal, Panaji, Raipur, Ranchi, Shillong, Shimla and Srinagar

The RBI has four regional representations: North in New Delhi, South in Chennai, East in Kolkata and West in Mumbai. The representations are formed by five members, appointed for four years by the central government and with the advice of the central board of directors serve as a forum for regional banks and to deal with delegated tasks from the Central Board

It has two training colleges for its officers, viz. Reserve Bank Staff College, Chennai and College of Agricultural Banking, Pune. There are three autonomous institutions run by RBI namely National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM), Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT).There are also four Zonal Training Centres at Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and New Delhi.

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